May 2021 – Riddle Answer

He was cleaning the windows on the inside of the building!

What’s happening with copper prices and how does this affect your electrical work

Copper with its corrosive resistance, electrical conductivity and superior heat transfer make it one of the most important metals in use today.

When it comes to the electrical industry, nearly all electrical wires and cables today use copper. This means that the increasing demand and pricing is having a significant impact on cable pricing.

What is driving these increases?
The demand for copper is increasing dramatically as worldwide economies ramp up with the roll out of vaccines. The increasing push by governments for sustainable energy generation is also contributing to demand with copper being the key metal in generation, transmission, storage and consumption of electricity.

As demand has continued to grow, unfortunately supply has not kept pace with the worldwide pandemic effecting production. International Copper Study Groups in Peru, the world’s second largest producer of copper, reported a 12.5% plunge in output in 2020. With demand increasing and supply constrained, copper prices are reaching highs not seen in many years.

copper-pricing

 

Is this a short-term problem?
While the roll out of vaccines across the world should assist with increasing the supply of copper, the worldwide demand for copper is forecast to continue to grow. Some analysts are predicting that growth will be as much as 50% over the next ten years as the world moves to low carbon options.  For example, the production of a petrol/diesel car uses 16kg of copper compared to an electric or hybrid car which requires 60kg.

did-you-know

What does this mean for you?
EAS quotes your jobs based on the current pricing for cable. While we have traditionally guaranteed this pricing for a period of 30 days, the constantly increasing copper prices and demand for stock means that we cannot always guarantee pricing for this length of time. If we are aware of an impending price increase, your quote validity may reduce, which gives you the opportunity to get your orders in before prices increase again.

In addition to the pressure on copper pricing, International shipping availability is also stretched which has resulted in approximately 20% less capacity and as much as a 50% increase in rates, further adding to unpredictability with sourcing materials.

We highly recommend if you have projects where a significant amount of cable will be required you confirm these as soon as possible so that we can lock in supply and pricing.

If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to get in touch with the team on 07 834 0505.

Injection Testing for Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers can go long periods of time without activation. If they fail when activated, this can have catastrophic consequences for your staff and plant if an arc flash were to occur; and will certainly cause extensive damage to your electrical systems. Primary & Secondary injection testing should be included as part of your Preventative Maintenance plan to ensure the reliability and safety of your power circuit breakers.

Primary Injection Testing
Primary current injection is usually the preferred test method because it includes the current sensors, wiring and the current conduction path in the circuit breaker as part of the test. However, it will not always detect sensor wiring and polarity problems.

Primary injection tests work by injecting a calculated amount of low voltage (Typically 5 to 10 Volts) with high current through the breaker and measuring how long it takes for the breaker to trip. The calculated amount of current is different for each type of function you want to test. Based on the time-current curve for the breaker, each testing current value will have a required time response for determining acceptability.

Common primary injection tests include:

  • Power Transformers (Through Faults)
  • Relay Testing
  • Bus-work, Switchgear and HV Breakers
  • Low voltage breakers
  • Switchgear Testing
  • Heat runs
  • Stability tests
  • Loose Connections
  • Core Identification

Secondary Injection Testing:
Secondary Injection Tests are always completed before the Primary Injection Tests. It is done to minimize the risks during the initial testing to the Low Voltage side of equipment under test. This check verifies the correct operation of the protection controls that are downstream from the inputs to the protection relays.

Some trip units allow for just testing of the electronic trip functions of the breakers, this form of testing is much more readily accessible and easier to complete. Secondary trip testing differs from Primary in that the high currents are not applied through the line and load contacts of the breaker. This generally involves disconnecting the trip from its standard operating circuitry and connecting it to a specialist test that can inject, measure and record the actual operation characteristics of the breaker under test.

If you need help incorporating primary and secondary injection testing as part of your preventative maintenance programme get in touch with EAS, your specialist industrial electrical team today on 07 834 0505.

injection-testing

April 2021 – Riddle Answer

The yellow switch

Improving Indoor Air Quality with Ultraviolet-C light

  • 50% of sickness comes from poor indoor air quality
    (USA figures from US Environmental Protection Agency)
  • Good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) increases productivity by 20%
    (Green Building Council)
  • UVC solutions can save up to 15% in energy costs.

Air Conditioning provides us with a comfortable working environment, where we believe we are breathing good clean air. However, there are many invisible pollutants in the air that we are often not aware of and the damage they are doing.

With the spread of Covid-19 around the globe, we have all become much more aware of the ease with which viruses transmit. The diagram below shows all the ways that viruses and bacteria can get into HVAC systems.

uv-air-conditioning

Image source:  Steril-Aire

The biggest cause of poor indoor air quality is Biofilm.

Biofilm forms when mould and bacteria adhere to surfaces in moist environments by excreting a slimy glue-like substance which dust sticks to. The biofilm grows in the cooling coil and releases spores into the air stream. As Biofilm grows it forms a protective shell which traditional cleaners are unable to fully penetrate, making it difficult to remove. Biofilm is also a poor conductor of heat and therefore inhibits the cooling efficiency of the coil. In addition to Biofilm, indoor air quality is also reduced by the circulation of virus and bacteria contaminants brought into the building by people and from the outside air.

How can you improve indoor air quality?
Ultraviolet-C (UVC) light is a powerful tool for arresting the spread of unhealthy contaminants.

UVC inactivates the microbes, bacteria, viruses and mould by altering their DNA, destroying their ability to reproduce.

uv-light

Source: Steril-Aire

With the correct number of emitters and UVC dose selected according to your cooling coil size and airflow up to 99% of the airborne biological pollutants can be destroyed. UVC will also eliminate the mould that keeps the biofilm attached to the fins of the cooling coil. The dead mould detaches from the metal fins and is washed into the drain pan by the condensate leaving the cooling coils clean.

Benefits of using UVC light sterilisers:

  • Improved energy efficiency. When coils are covered in biofilm the HVAC system needs to work harder, shortening their lifespan and increasing energy costs.  As Air Conditioning typically contributes a significant portion of energy costs there are excellent savings to be made. Some systems claiming payback within 24 months of installation or less.
  • Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) causes 50% of illness in the US according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). With good IAQ decreasing employee absenteeism by 20 – 50%.
  • In food processing plants the use of UVC can enhance food safety through mould, bacteria and virus control extending product shelf life and improving quality and production yields.

If you would like to find out more about installing UVC light sterilisers in your HVAC systems, get in touch with EAS today on 07 834 0505.

March 2021 Puzzle Answer

The circle = 3
The star = 5
The triangle = 4

for more puzzles check out briddles.com

Need more water for you farm or lifestyle property?

Have you considered a water bore?

 

What are bore pumps:
A bore is a hole drilled in the ground that fills up with groundwater which can then be pumped out to use for drinking water for animals and livestock or irrigating gardens and farms.

Groundwater is water found beneath the land in pores and fissures in rock and soil. A bore pump, either above ground or a submersible pump and motor, is used to pump the water up and out for a range of uses.

Care needs to be taken when selecting a location to install a bore pump, ensuring safe and clean drinking water. Contact the team at EAS to help provide insight on ways to protect your bore location.

groundwater

Reliability:

These pumps are very low maintenance, generally with a 10-15 year lifespan, with the infrastructure supporting the pump around 20-30 years. Some of the pumps can be setup with certain parameters, allowing constant pressure and flow. They can be setup for various applications suiting either mains or low pressure systems.

If you have a bore pump water supply system that is faultingbore-bump
or causing issues, EAS can provide assistance with electrical testing and troubleshooting.

Power Supply:
Your pump will require electricity to power it. Some applications may require a purpose-built pumping shed, complete with appropriate distribution valving, UV filtering, control equipment, general power & lighting.

EAS can provide you with a complete solution to installing a water bore on your property; from coordinating the drilling to setting up and installing your pump to ensure it is protected from power surges – giving you a long-term solution to your water needs.

To find out more, get in touch with the team on 07 834 0505 or [email protected]

Temperature Sensors

Temperature is one of the most measured variables in manufacturing. Temperature plays a vital role in efficiency, energy consumption, product quality and safety.

Just some of the places that EAS has installed temperature sensors include:

  • Coolstores to monitor product & room temperatures.
  • Process lines.
  • Clean In Place (CIP) lines to make sure CIP is at the desired temperature, ensuring proper cleaning.
  • Milk Lines to ensure the milk is <4 Degrees Celcius.
  • Boilers to monitor temperatures, maintaining boiler efficiency.
  • Throughout Milk Driers, providing overtemperature deluge alarm status.

 

There are various types of temperature sensors that can provide you with effective monitoring of temperature in your plant or process and EAS can assist you with selecting the right sensor for your needs.

The most commonly used sensors are Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) and Thermocouples (T/Cs).

Thermocouples (T/Cs) are probably the most used method of temperature measurement. Thermocouples are contact sensors that are basically made up of two wires of different metals and joined at one end. Changes in the temperature at the junction of the dissimilar metals create a change in electromotive force (emf) between the other end and allow temperature to be measured.

There are many different types of thermocouples to fit a wide range of applications suitable for all industries, their appearances can be quite different.

thermocouples

But, as can be seen in the thermocouple diagram below, they all rely on the same basic principles and systems.

thermocouple-diagram

Image source: www.nz.rs-online.com/

Two or more dissimilar thermocouple wires form at least two junctions within a circuit. One of these is always kept at a steady and stable temperature – usually lower, but sometimes higher, than the temperature at the measuring (‘hot’) junction.

A voltmeter connected to the circuit reads the current created by electromotive forces because of the temperature differential. This can then be used to give a precise temperature reading.

 

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) are also contact sensors. They work on the principle that the electrical resistance of a metal increases as temperature increases – this is known as thermal resistivity. RTDs are made of resistive material such as platinum, copper or nickel depending on the requirements of the process.

The resistance of Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) changes constantly with the applied temperature so the temperature is quite predictable by measurement of its resistance. It is this property which allows Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) to measure temperature accurately and consistently.

rtds

rtd-diagram

Image source: www.instrumentationtoday.com

Each type of temperature sensor will work best in a particular set of conditions.  The table below provides an indication of some of the conditions where thermocouples or RTDs are best used as well as the advantages and disadvantages each offers.

rtd-vs-thermocouple-table

As you can see there are many factors that can affect the selection of the best temperature device for your application. EAS can help guide you in selecting the best sensor for your plant or process. Just get in touch with the team on 07 834 0505 or [email protected]

Puzzle – February 2021 Newsletter

Was your answer 19?

Check out the picture below for any you missed.

 riddle-answer

For more great riddles check out www.briddles.com

Terms & Conditions – $20,000 Referral Bonus

To be eligible for the $20,000 referral bonus the following conditions must be met:

  • EAS must employ the person you recommend.
  • The referrer must be identified in the covering email sent with the job application.
  • Job applications must be received by the close off date.
  • The bonus will paid out in increments. $4,000 on the completion of 3 months employment, a further $4,000 after 12 months employment and then $4,000 every 12 months for the next 3 years of employment.
  • If the staff member leaves during the payment period, the bonus will be forfeited.

 

To apply, refer to our job ad on Seek